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Public Health Well

Fatigue, quality of life and metabolic changes in men treated with first-line enzalutamide versus abiraterone plus prednisolone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (HEAT): a randomised trial protocol

Introduction Enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate plus prednisolone (AAP) are used in combination with androgen-deprivation therapy to further suppress the androgen stimulation of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). First-line mCRPC tr ...

Assessment of uteroplacental vascularisation in early first-trimester pregnancy with contrast-enhanced ultrasound and 3D power Doppler angiography: protocol for a prospective, cross-sectional, multicentre and non-randomised open study ("HOPE Study")

Introduction Knowledge about the mechanisms leading to the establishment of uteroplacental vascularisation is inadequate, and some of what has been thought to be known for decades has recently been challenged by showing that the intervillous space, the maj ...

Processes and contexts influencing health inequalities among women who are mothers

This paper presents a conceptual framework that aims to conceptualise the different processes and contexts influencing health inequalities among women who are mothers. On the one hand, four processes are shown: (1) social stratification; (2) route into mo ...

Expansion of disability across successive Mexican birth cohorts: a longitudinal modelling analysis of birth cohorts born 10 years apart

Background Life expectancy (LE) in Mexico has risen rapidly since the 1950s. In high-income contexts, these increases have coincided with a compression of disability to later ages. However, little evidence on trends in disability-free LE (DFLE) exist from ...

Comparison of physical and social risk-reducing factors for the development of disability in older adults: a population-based cohort study

Background Considerations of modifiable risk factors for the development of disability in older age have traditionally focused on physical activity. However, there is increasing evidence that psychological, social, and cognitive factors also help to mainta ...

Residence change during the first trimester of pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes

Background There are few published studies evaluating the impact of perinatal residence change on infant outcomes and whether these associations differ by socioeconomic status. ...

Are observed associations between a high maternal prepregnancy body mass index and offspring IQ likely to be causal?

Background A high maternal prepregnancy body mass index has been associated with lower offspring IQ, but it is unclear if the relationship is causal. To explore this, our objectives were to compare maternal and paternal estimates and to assess whether cert ...

What is the evidence that differences in 'control over destiny lead to socioeconomic inequalities in health? A theory-led systematic review of high-quality longitudinal studies on pathways in the living environment

Background Low control and high demand in the places where people work has been shown to partially explain why those in lower socioeconomic positions experience poorer health than their counterparts in higher socioeconomic positions. It would seem likely t ...

Opioid-related diagnoses and HIV, HCV and mental disorders: using Pennsylvania hospitalisation data to assess community-level relationships over space and time

Background We assessed the community-level spatiotemporal connexions between hospitalisations for common opioid comorbidities (HIV, hepatitis C (HCV) and mental disorders) and opioid-related hospitalisations in the current and previous year. ...

Loneliness as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome: results from the HUNT study

Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes hyperglycaemia, hypertension, central adiposity, elevated triglyceride levels and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. All factors are identified as risk factors for cardiovascular disease and mor ...

Residential mobility and socioemotional and behavioural difficulties in a preschool population cohort of New Zealand children

Background Findings regarding early residential mobility and increased risk for socioemotional and behavioural (SEB) difficulties in preschool children are mixed, with some studies finding no evidence of an association once known covariates are controlled ...

Early roots of sexual-orientation health disparities: associations between sexual attraction, health and well-being in a national sample of Australian adolescents

Background Research documents substantial adolescent health disparities by sexual orientation, but studies are confined to a small number of countries—chiefly the USA. We provide first-time evidence of associations between sexual orientation and adolescent ...

Inequalities in adolescent self-rated health and smoking in Europe: comparing different indicators of socioeconomic status

Background Although there is evidence for socioeconomic inequalities in health and health behaviour in adolescents, different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) have rarely been compared within one data sample. We examined associations of five SES in ...

Socioeconomic inequality in recent adverse all-cause mortality trends in Scotland

Background Gains in life expectancies have stalled in Scotland, as in several other countries, since around 2012. The relationship between stalling mortality improvements and socioeconomic inequalities in health is unclear. ...

Financial stress and mental health among higher education students in the UK up to 2018: rapid review of evidence

Introduction In the United Kingdom and many other countries, debt accrued during higher education has increased substantially in recent decades. The prevalence of common mental health problems has also increased alongside these changes. However, it is as y ...

Acceptability and feasibility of weight management programmes for adults with severe obesity: a qualitative systematic review

Objectives To improve our understanding of the acceptability of behavioural weight management programmes (WMPs) for adults with severe obesity. Design A systematic review of qualitative evidence. Data sources Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SCI, SSCI an ...

Is the risk of cervical atypia associated with the interval between menarche and the start of sexual activity? A population-based cohort study

Objective We investigated whether the risk of cervical atypia is associated with a short interval between the age at first sexual intercourse (FSI) or age at the start of oral contraceptive (OC) use and menarche. Design A population-based cohort study. Set ...

Evaluating the endometabolic and bone health effects of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: a systematic review protocol

Introduction Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) constitutes 15% of new adult leukaemia cases as well as 2%–3% of leukaemia in children under 15% and 9% of leukaemias in adolescents 15–19 years of age annually. The introduction of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (T ...

Comparative efficacy of 13 immunosuppressive agents for idiopathic membranous nephropathy in adults with nephrotic syndrome: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Objectives This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of 13 types of immunosuppressive agents used to treat idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) in adults with nephrotic syndrome. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data sources PubMe ...

Effect of continuum-of-care intervention package on improving contacts and quality of maternal and newborn healthcare in Ghana: a cluster randomised controlled trial

Objective To evaluate the effect of a continuum-of-care intervention package on adequate contacts of women and newborn with healthcare providers and their reception of high-quality care. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 subdistricts i ...

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