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Public Health Well

No Magic Bolus: What the History of Rickets and Vitamin D Can Teach Us About Setting Standards

A recurring theme of Patseadou and Haller's analysis is the “lack of consensus among countries about the optimal status and adequate nutritional requirements” [1]. A quick survey of the history of vitamin D goes a long way in explaining this uncertain ...

The Complex Predictors of Youth Homelessness

In a 2018 issue of this journal, colleagues and I published the first national prevalence and incidence study of homelessness among youth and young adults in the U.S. [1]. We found that the problem is strikingly prevalent, with approximately one in 30 adol ...

It Is Time We Start Asking: Handgun Carrying Among Youth in Rural Contexts

Firearms are the second leading cause of death among U.S. adolescents and contribute to substantial medical and societal costs [1,2]. Increases in both firearm homicide and suicide rates have resulted in a 28% relative increase in the rate of firearm death ...

Retail Outlets and Point-of-Sale Marketing of Alternative Tobacco Products: Another Threat to Tobacco Control

The increase in alternative tobacco product use among youth is offsetting declines in cigarette use. Although past month cigarette use declined between 2011 and 2018 among high school students, past month use of any tobacco product rose over the same inter ...

Combating antibiotic resistance using guidelines and enhanced stewardship in Kenya: a protocol for an implementation science approach

Introduction Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing problem globally especially in Sub-Saharan Africa including Kenya. Without any intervention, lower/middle-income countries (LMICs) will be most affected due to already higher AMR levels compared with ...

Determinants of modern contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age: a cross-sectional study in rural Zambia

Objective Zambia is among the world’s top 10 countries with higher fertility rate (5.5 births/woman); unmet family planning need for births spacing (14%) and limiting births (7%). Women in rural Zambia (24%) are reported to have unmet need for family plann ...

Impact of electronic palliative care coordination systems (EPaCCS) on care at the end of life across multiple care sectors, in one clinical commissioning group area, in England: a realist evaluation protocol

Introduction Electronic palliative care coordination systems (EPaCCS) aim to support people approaching the end of life (EOL) to receive consistent care, according to their wishes, that is coordinated effectively across multiple care sectors. They are in u ...

Liver function tests and fibrosis scores in a rural population in Africa: a cross-sectional study to estimate the burden of disease and associated risk factors

Objectives Liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, but its prevalence, distribution and aetiology have not been well characterised. We therefore set out to examine liver function tests (LFTs) and liver fibrosis scor ...

Investigating the effectiveness of care delivery at an acute geriatric community hospital for older adults in the Netherlands: a protocol for a prospective controlled observational study

Introduction Hospital admission in older adults with multiple chronic conditions is associated with unwanted outcomes like readmission, institutionalisation, functional decline and mortality. Providing acute care in the community and integrating effective ...

Preferences for end-of-life care: a study protocol for a cross-sectional survey of Chinese frail elderly home residents in Hong Kong

Introduction Existing literature on attitudes toward end-of-life care (EoLC) covers the general public but has little information on the frail elderly population. The aim of the current study is to investigate the preferences of Chinese frail elderly home ...

Video-based smartphone app ('VIDEA bewegt) for physical activity support in German adults: a study protocol for a single-armed observational study

Introduction Insufficient physical activity is one of the most important risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Physical activity should therefore be intensively promoted in all age groups. Several trials suggest that it can be effectively increased t ...

'You have got a foreign body in there: renal transplantation, unexpected mild-to-moderate distress and patients support needs: a qualitative study

Objective To explore why transplant patients experience unexpected mild-to-moderate distress and what support they may need. Design Qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews. Setting Four National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in the Midlands, U ...

Evaluating a group-based Yoga of Stress Resilience programme: a pragmatic before-after interventional study protocol

Introduction Rates of mental health illnesses and burnout are increasing internationally. Therapeutic yoga is increasingly used to improve and maintain physical, mental and emotional well-being and general health. This protocol describes a study to evaluat ...

Assessing efficacy of CytoSorb haemoadsorber for prevention of organ dysfunction in cardiac surgery patients with infective endocarditis: REMOVE-protocol for randomised controlled trial

Introduction Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Multiple organ failure is the main cause of death after surgery for IE. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause a systemic inflammatory response. ...

Assessing the feasibility of a rapid, high-volume cervical cancer screening programme using HPV self-sampling and digital colposcopy in rural regions of Yunnan, China

Objective Implementation of a novel, rapid, high-volume, see-and-treat cervical cancer screening programme using self-swab human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and digital colposcopy in underserved regions of Yunnan China. ...

Maternal multivitamin intake and orofacial clefts in offspring: Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) cohort study

Objectives Orofacial clefts are common birth defects with a lack of strong evidence regarding their association with maternal nutrition. We aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between maternal nutrient or multivitamin intake and orofacial clef ...

Protocol for a randomised trial of an interprofessional team-delivered intervention to support surrogate decision-makers in ICUs

Introduction Although shortcomings in clinician–family communication and decision making for incapacitated, critically ill patients are common, there are few rigorously tested interventions to improve outcomes. In this manuscript, we present our methodolog ...

Association between frailty and disability among rural community-dwelling older adults in Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional study

Objective We examined the association between frailty and disability in rural community-dwelling older adults in Kegalle district of Sri Lanka. Design A population-based cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 746 community-dwelling adults aged ≥60 ...

Systematic review and network meta-analysis with individual participant data on cord management at preterm birth (iCOMP): study protocol

Introduction Timing of cord clamping and other cord management strategies may improve outcomes at preterm birth. However, it is unclear whether benefits apply to all preterm subgroups. Previous and current trials compare various policies, including time-ba ...

Accelerated partner therapy (APT) partner notification for people with Chlamydia trachomatis: protocol for the Limiting Undetected Sexually Transmitted infections to RedUce Morbidity (LUSTRUM) APT cross-over cluster randomised controlled trial

Introduction Partner notification (PN) is a process aiming to identify, test and treat the sex partners of people (index patients) with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Accelerated partner therapy (APT) is a PN method whereby healthcare professional ...

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