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Public Health Well

Structure and Control of Healthy Worker Effects in Studies of Pregnancy Outcomes

AbstractMuch of the literature on the healthy worker effect focuses on studies of chronic disease and mortality; however, when studying pregnancy outcomes, these effects might differ because of the short, defined risk periods of most pregnancy outcomes. Th ...

Stress Disorders and Dementia in the Danish Population

AbstractThere is an association between stress and dementia. However, less is known about dementia among persons with varied stress responses and sex differences in these associations. We used this population-based cohort study to examine dementia among pe ...

Causal Mediation Analysis With Observational Data: Considerations and Illustration Examining Mechanisms Linking Neighborhood Poverty to Adolescent Substance Use

AbstractUnderstanding the mediation mechanisms by which an exposure or intervention affects an outcome can provide a look into what has been called a “black box” of many epidemiologic associations, thereby providing further evidence of a relationship and p ...

Evaluation of the Performance of Algorithms That Use Serial Hepatitis C RNA Tests to Predict Treatment Initiation and Sustained Virological Response Among Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus

AbstractThe structure of electronic medical record data prevents easy population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake and cure. Using an HCV registry from a public hospital system in Atlanta, Georgia, we developed multiple algorithm ...

Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Carriers of Balanced Robertsonian Translocations: A National Cohort Study

AbstractA balanced robertsonian translocation (rob) results from fusion of 2 acrocentric chromosomes. Carriers are phenotypically normal and are often diagnosed because of recurrent miscarriages, infertility, or aneuploid offspring. Mortality and site-spec ...

Gestational Age at Arrest of Development: An Alternative Approach for Assigning Time at Risk in Studies of Time-Varying Exposures and Miscarriage

AbstractThe time between arrest of pregnancy development and miscarriage represents a window in which the pregnancy is nonviable and not developing. In effect, the pregnancy loss has already occurred, and additional exposure cannot influence its outcome. H ...

Multinomial Extension of Propensity Score Trimming Methods: A Simulation Study

AbstractCrump et al. (Biometrika. 2009;96(1):187–199), Stürmer et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(7):843–854), and Walker et al. (Comp Eff Res. 2013;2013(3):11–20) proposed propensity score (PS) trimming methods as a means to improve efficiency (Crump) or re ...

Guideline-Based Physical Activity and Survival Among US Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

AbstractThe survival impact of adhering to current physical activity guidelines after prostate cancer diagnosis is unknown. We therefore emulated a target trial of guideline-based physical activity interventions and 10-year survival among US men with nonme ...

Shift Work and Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Workers

AbstractRecently, there has been interest in whether shift work may enhance susceptibility to infection. Our aim was to determine whether shift workers in the health-care field have a higher incidence, duration, and/or severity of influenza-like illness (I ...

Associations Between Features of Placental Morphology and Birth Weight in Dichorionic Twins

AbstractLow birth weight is associated with perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality, and may be a result of abnormal placental development and function. In studies of singletons, associations have been reported between features of placental morphol ...

An Investigation of Selection Bias in Estimating Racial Disparity in Stroke Risk FactorsThe REGARDS Study

AbstractSelection due to survival or attrition might bias estimates of racial disparities in health, but few studies quantify the likely magnitude of such bias. In a large national cohort with moderate loss to follow-up, we contrasted racial differences in ...

Machine learning for prediction of sudden cardiac death in heart failure patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction: study protocol for a retroprospective multicentre registry in China

Introduction Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%, as current significant implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) indication for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in heart failure (HF) patients, has been widely recognised to b ...

How do patients from South Asian backgrounds experience life on haemodialysis in the UK? A multicentre qualitative study

Objectives End-stage kidney disease disproportionately affects people of South Asian origin. This study aimed to uncover the lived experiences of this group of patients on centre-based haemodialysis (HD), the most prevalent dialysis modality. ...

Height-based dosing algorithm of bupivacaine in spinal anaesthesia for decreasing maternal hypotension in caesarean section without prophylactic fluid preloading and vasopressors: study protocol for a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

Introduction Effectively preventing or treating spinal-induced maternal hypotension is considered to be the Holy Grail of obstetric anaesthesia. Prophylactic fluid preloading and vasopressors decrease hypotension but may aggravate heart load, induce fetal ...

Do informed consumers in Taiwan favour larger hospitals? A 10-year population-based study on differences in the selection of healthcare providers among medical professionals, their relatives and the general population

Objectives Exploring whether medical professionals, who are considered to be ‘informed consumers’ in the healthcare system, favour large providers for elective treatments. In this study, we compare the inclination of medical professionals and their relativ ...

Physical heaviness of work and sitting at work as predictors of mortality: a 26-year follow-up of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

Objectives To examine the relationships of late-career physical heaviness of work and sitting at work with mortality. A national-level job exposure matrix was used to determine the occupation-specific level of physical heaviness and sitting. Design Prospec ...

Prevalence and impact of clinical violence towards nursing students in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study

Objectives Studies of violence towards nursing students (NSs) have been scattered mainly in the West and Middle East, but to date there have been no studies in Eastern countries. Differences in nursing education systems and cultures might have contributed ...

National health information systems for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

Objectives Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require data-driven public health action. There are limited publications on national health information systems that continuously generate health data. Given the need to develop these systems, we ...

Effectiveness of antitussives, anticholinergics or honey versus usual care in adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis: a study protocol of an open randomised clinical trial in primary care

Introduction Despite the frequent use of therapies in acute bronchitis, the evidence of their benefit is lacking, since only a few clinical trials have been published, with low sample sizes, poor methodological quality and mainly in children. The objective ...

Environmental management for dengue control: a systematic review protocol

Introduction Dengue is among the most important mosquito-borne diseases, with more than half of the world’s population at risk of infection in dengue endemic countries. Environmental management, which includes any activities that involve environmental modi ...

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