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Public Health Well

Structure and Control of Healthy Worker Effects in Studies of Pregnancy Outcomes

AbstractMuch of the literature on the healthy worker effect focuses on studies of chronic disease and mortality; however, when studying pregnancy outcomes, these effects might differ because of the short, defined risk periods of most pregnancy outcomes. Th ...

Stress Disorders and Dementia in the Danish Population

AbstractThere is an association between stress and dementia. However, less is known about dementia among persons with varied stress responses and sex differences in these associations. We used this population-based cohort study to examine dementia among pe ...

Causal Mediation Analysis With Observational Data: Considerations and Illustration Examining Mechanisms Linking Neighborhood Poverty to Adolescent Substance Use

AbstractUnderstanding the mediation mechanisms by which an exposure or intervention affects an outcome can provide a look into what has been called a “black box” of many epidemiologic associations, thereby providing further evidence of a relationship and p ...

Evaluation of the Performance of Algorithms That Use Serial Hepatitis C RNA Tests to Predict Treatment Initiation and Sustained Virological Response Among Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus

AbstractThe structure of electronic medical record data prevents easy population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake and cure. Using an HCV registry from a public hospital system in Atlanta, Georgia, we developed multiple algorithm ...

Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Carriers of Balanced Robertsonian Translocations: A National Cohort Study

AbstractA balanced robertsonian translocation (rob) results from fusion of 2 acrocentric chromosomes. Carriers are phenotypically normal and are often diagnosed because of recurrent miscarriages, infertility, or aneuploid offspring. Mortality and site-spec ...

Gestational Age at Arrest of Development: An Alternative Approach for Assigning Time at Risk in Studies of Time-Varying Exposures and Miscarriage

AbstractThe time between arrest of pregnancy development and miscarriage represents a window in which the pregnancy is nonviable and not developing. In effect, the pregnancy loss has already occurred, and additional exposure cannot influence its outcome. H ...

Multinomial Extension of Propensity Score Trimming Methods: A Simulation Study

AbstractCrump et al. (Biometrika. 2009;96(1):187–199), Stürmer et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(7):843–854), and Walker et al. (Comp Eff Res. 2013;2013(3):11–20) proposed propensity score (PS) trimming methods as a means to improve efficiency (Crump) or re ...

Guideline-Based Physical Activity and Survival Among US Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

AbstractThe survival impact of adhering to current physical activity guidelines after prostate cancer diagnosis is unknown. We therefore emulated a target trial of guideline-based physical activity interventions and 10-year survival among US men with nonme ...

Shift Work and Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Workers

AbstractRecently, there has been interest in whether shift work may enhance susceptibility to infection. Our aim was to determine whether shift workers in the health-care field have a higher incidence, duration, and/or severity of influenza-like illness (I ...

Associations Between Features of Placental Morphology and Birth Weight in Dichorionic Twins

AbstractLow birth weight is associated with perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality, and may be a result of abnormal placental development and function. In studies of singletons, associations have been reported between features of placental morphol ...

An Investigation of Selection Bias in Estimating Racial Disparity in Stroke Risk FactorsThe REGARDS Study

AbstractSelection due to survival or attrition might bias estimates of racial disparities in health, but few studies quantify the likely magnitude of such bias. In a large national cohort with moderate loss to follow-up, we contrasted racial differences in ...

Poor prognosis of child and adolescent musculoskeletal pain: a systematic literature review

Objectives To identify baseline patient characteristics that are (1) associated with a poor outcome on follow-up regardless of which treatment was provided (prognosis) or (2) associated with a successful outcome to a specific treatment (treatment effect mo ...

Process and outcomes evaluation of a pre-academic arts program for individuals with mental health conditions: a mixed methods study protocol

Introduction The Garage is a multidisciplinary pre-academic arts school for people with artistic abilities who are coping with mental health conditions (MHC). The programme, supported by the National Insurance Institute and the Ministry of Health in Israel ...

Effect of frailty on quality of life in elderly patients after hip fracture: a longitudinal study

Objectives The aims of this study were to examine the pattern of changes over time in health status (HS) and quality of life (QoL) in the first year after hip fracture and to quantify the association between frailty at the onset of hip fracture and the cha ...

Association between osteosarcopenic obesity and hypertension among four minority populations in China: a cross-sectional study

Objective Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) may be associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension. The aim of this study was to examine the difference in the prevalence of OSO and hypertension among four minority populations in China and explore the r ...

Is it possible to automatically assess pretreatment digital rectal examination documentation using natural language processing? A single-centre retrospective study

Objectives To develop and test a method for automatic assessment of a quality metric, provider-documented pretreatment digital rectal examination (DRE), using the outputs of a natural language processing (NLP) framework. ...

Developing and evaluating a lay health worker delivered implementation intervention to decrease engagement disparities in behavioural parent training: a mixed methods study protocol

Introduction Behavioural parent training (BPT) programmes are effective in preventing and treating early-onset conduct problems and child maltreatment. Unfortunately, pervasive mental health service disparities continue to limit access to and engagement in ...

Performance of primary care in different healthcare facilities: a cross-sectional study of patients experiences in Southern Malawi

Objective In most African countries, primary care is delivered through a district health system. Many factors, including staffing levels, staff experience, availability of equipment and facility management, affect the quality of primary care between and wi ...

Regional variation of avoidable hospitalisations in a universal health care system: a register-based cohort study from Finland 1996-2013

Objectives A persistent finding in research concerning healthcare and hospital use in Western countries has been regional variation in the medical practices. The aim of the current study was to examine trends in the regional variation of avoidable hospital ...

Status and influencing factors of diabetes information acquisition among rural elderly with pre-diabetes in Yiyang City, China: a cross-sectional study

Objective This study was designed to investigate the status of diabetes information acquisition and its influencing factors among patients, 60 years and older, with pre-diabetes in rural China. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Setting The survey was ...

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