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Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Muslims – Selected findings


European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

Subject Keywords: Equality, Discrimination, Data, Religion
Catalogue: Research and Evaluation
Type: Policy
Region: Europe

Muslims living in the EU face discrimination in a broad range of settings – and particularly when looking for work, on the job, and when trying to access public or private services. The report examines how characteristics – such as an individual's first and last name, skin colour and the wearing of visible religious symbols like a headscarf, for example – may trigger discriminatory treatment and harassment.

These are just some of the findings outlined in this report, which examines the experiences of more than 10,500 Muslim immigrants and descendants of Muslim immigrants in 15 EU Member States. In addition to discrimination – including police stops based on ethnic background – it explores issues ranging from citizenship, trust and tolerance, through harassment, violence and hate crime, to rights awareness.

The report is based on data collected in FRA’s second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey, which surveyed around 26,000 people with immigrant or ethnic minority backgrounds living in the EU. It provides a unique insight into the experiences and perceptions of the EU’s second largest religious group, representing about 4 % of the EU’s total population. Taken together, the survey findings and the recommendations can provide a good basis to support the effectiveness of a wide range of measures in the areas of integration and non-discrimination, as well as internal security policy.



Rights: © Public
Suggested citation:

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. (2017) Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Muslims – Selected findings [Online]. Available from: [Accessed: 18th November 2019].


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